January 2022

AKC Activities

[CAPK 에세이 #2] 동남아 일부 국가 및 한국의 국민성과 발전에 대한 고찰

[CAPK Contribution #2] Examining National Character and Development in Selected Southeast Asian Countries and South Korea


주한아세안교수협의회 (CAPK)는 2019년에 한국에 거주하는 아세안 교수와 연구자들 간의 네트워크 구축을 위해 발족되었습니다. CAPK는 역량강화 및 네트워킹을 위한 학술 및 아웃리치 활동을통해 공공외교의 최전선에 서서 아세안과 한국 간의 학술 및 인적교류를 활성화하는 것을 목표로 하고 있습니다. 이번 1월호에는 Dr. Massuline Antonio D. Ligaya (필리핀)의 『국가적 특성과 국가의 사회•정치•경제적 발전 간의 관계성』에 대한 에세이를 소개합니다.


저자 소개

Massiline Antonio D. Ligaya는 현재 한서대학교에서 조교수로 영어를 가르치는 동시에 대학원생들의 논문 지도교수로 재직 중입니다. 1988년 처음 필리핀에서 교사로 경력을 시작해서 지난 30년간 학계에 몸담은 그는 2013년 한국에 와서 교수로 활동중입니다.


* 이 글에 표현된 의견 및 견해는 전적으로 저자 개인의 의견으로 한-아세안센터 또는 주한 아세안 교수협의회의 공식의견과 무관함을 밝힙니다.


In the January edition of the Council of ASEAN Professors in Korea (CAPK) publication series, CAPK welcomes the academic paper written by Dr. Massuline Antonio D. Ligaya (Philippines) on the relationship between national characteristics and the socio-political and economic development of a nation. Launched in 2019, CAPK represents a network of ASEAN professors and researchers in Korea where its activities, among others, include engagements in academic and outreach activities for capacity-building, networking, and public diplomacy in ASEAN-Korea relations.


Author’s Biography

Dr. Massuline Antonio D. Ligaya is an assistant professor at Hanseo University where he teaches English and at the same time serves as adviser to graduate students writing their dissertations. He started his career as a teacher in the Philippines in 1988 and came to South Korea in 2013 for teaching.



The opinions and views expressed in this article are solely the authors’ own and do not reflect the opinions or views of the ASEAN-Korea Centre or Council of ASEAN Professors in Korea.



This essay investigated the relationship between the development of a nation and the characteristics of its people. In this investigation, the construct used to embody the characteristics of the people living in a particular country is national character and the development of a nation is viewed here using the socio-economic and political lenses. This paper investigates South Korea and three Southeast Asian (SEA) nations, namely, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

In examining the national character of the countries aforementioned, Hofstede’s measures of cultural values (Hofstede’s 6-D model) were used. In measuring the development these countries have reached, their scores and corresponding ranks in the Human Development Index (HDI) were compared.

This paper concludes that the development of a nation could be affected by the characteristics of its people. The South Koreans have certain characteristics, as shown in their scores in Hofstede’s 6-D model, that helped them consistently rank high in the Human Development Index. People in Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and other Southeast Asian nations may perhaps consider embracing, not only the music, movies, TV dramas, food, and fashion of the South Koreans but also their cultural and behavioral orientations. In particular, the leaders of the said countries should consider looking at South Korean models when formulating their policies in the fields of education, research, and development.

Read the Essay Here